Publication Date



Who is a member of the political community? What barriers to inclusion do immigrants face as outsiders to this political community? This Essay describes several barriers facing im- migrants and naturalized citizens that impede their political belonging. It critiques these barriers on the basis of immi- grants and foreign-born voters having rights of semi-citizen- ship. By placing naturalization backlogs, voting restrictions, and reapportionment battles in the historical context of voter suppression, it provides a descriptive and normative account of the political misrepresentation of immigrants.

Document Type


Publication Title

University of Colorado Law Review