UC Law SF International Law Review


Akhil Sud


In this paper, I use the certainty-severity tradeoff as my analytical lens—a novel move in antitrust—to explain the difference between U.S. and Indian antitrust law. I argue that, in antitrust, India prefers certainty of enforcement while the U.S. prefers severity of enforcement. This difference is not driven by doctrine or economic policy; rather, I locate this difference in six key institutional factors. And using economic theory, I argue that a difference in social attitudes to risk explains and justifies this institutionally-manifested difference in law.